I have recently started playing around with Fusion 360 to see what all the fuss was about. From the get go it looks very different but not. The ribbon at the top in Fusion looks like it is undocked. There is no history browser like in Inventor and where have all my tabs gone!!?!
When it comes to file structure, Fusion has only one like AutoCAD. Inventor has a few like the part file, assembly file, drawing file etc.
Fusion has 5 different environments.
The Model environment allows you to create primitives as well as create extrusions,revolve, sweep and then modify tools like fillet, chamfer etc. You can also do direct modelling as well as sketching and assemblies.
As you can see Autodesk has kept the consistency of the look of the icons so if you have used Autodesk software before then you should have no problem with identifying the command you are looking for.
The Patch workspace allows you to work with surfaces.
You have a Render workspace as well where you can setup the lights and materials and tweak he scene to get some renderings.
In the animation workspace, you have the ability to create animations, like your presentation file or Inventor Publisher. You can also put in annotations as well as publish the videos you create to create a video manual.